Resilience metrics

Resilience of water distribution systems refers to the design, maintenance, and operations of that system. All these aspects must work together to limit the effects of disasters and enable rapid return to normal delivery of safe water to customers. Numerous resilience metrics have been suggested [USEPA14]. These metrics generally fall into five categories: topographic, hydraulic, water quality, water security, and economic. When quantifying resilience, it is important to understand which metric best defines resilience for a particular scenario. WNTR includes many metrics to help users compare resilience using different methods.

The following sections outline metrics that can be computed using WNTR, including:

While some metrics define resilience as a single system-wide quantity, other metrics define quantities that are a function of time, space, or both. For this reason, state transition plots [BaRR13] and network graphics are useful ways to visualize resilience and compare metrics, as shown in Figure 11. In the state transition plot, the x-axis represents time (before, during, and after a disruptive incident). The y-axis represents performance. This can be any time varying resilience metric that responds to the disruptive state. State transition plots are often generated to show time varying performance of the system, but they can also represent the time varying performance of individual components, like tanks or pipes. Network graphics are useful to visualize resilience metrics that vary with respect to location. For metrics that vary with respect to time and space, network animation can be used to illustrate resilience.

Resilience metrics

Figure 11 Example state transition plot and network graphic used to visualize resilience.

The example resilience_metrics.py demonstrates how to compute these metrics.

Topographic metrics

Topographic metrics, based on graph theory, can be used to assess the connectivity of water distribution networks. These metrics rely on the physical layout of the network components and can be used to understand how the underlying structure and connectivity constrains resilience. For example, a regular lattice, where each node has the same number of edges, is considered to be the most reliable graph structure. On the other hand, a random lattice has nodes and edges that are placed according to a random process. A real world water distribution system probably lies somewhere in between a regular lattice and a random lattice in terms of structure and reliability.

NetworkX includes a wide range of topographic metrics that can be computed using the WntrMultiDiGraph. WNTR includes additional methods/metrics to help compute resilience. These methods are in the WntrMultiDiGraph class. Commonly used topographic metrics are listed in Table 9. Information on additional topographic metrics supported by NetworkX can be found at https://networkx.github.io/.

Table 9 Topographic Resilience Metrics
Metric Description
Node degree Node degree is the number of links adjacent to a node. Node degree is a measure of the number of branches in a network. A node with degree 0 is not connected to the network. Terminal nodes have degree 1. A node connected to every node (including itself) has a degree equal to the number of nodes in the network. The average node degree is a system wide metric used to describe the number of connected links in a network. Node degree can be computed using the NetworkX method degree. Terminal nodes can be found using the method terminal_nodes.
Link density Link density is the ratio between the total number of links and the maximum number of links in the network. If links are allowed to connect a node to itself, then the maximum number of links is \({n}^{2}\), where \(n\) is the number of nodes. Otherwise, the maximum number of nodes is \(n(n-1)\). Link density is 0 for a graph without edges and 1 for a dense graph. The density of multigraphs can be higher than 1. Link density can be computed using the NetworkX method density.
Eccentricity and diameter Eccentricity is the maximum number of links between a node and all other nodes in the graph. Eccentricity is a value between 0 and the number of links in the network. Diameter is the maximum eccentricity in the network. Eccentricity and diameter can only be computed using undirected, connected networks. Network X includes a method to convert directed graphs to undirected graphs, to_undirected, and to check if graphs are connected, is_connected. Eccentricity and diameter can be computed using the NetworkX methods eccentricity and diameter.
Simple paths A simple path is a path between two nodes that does not repeat any nodes. NetworkX includes a method, all_simple_paths, to compute all simple paths between two nodes. The method links_in_simple_paths can be used to extract all links in a simple path along with the number of times each link was used in the paths. Paths can be time dependent, if related to simulated flow direction. The method weight_graph can be used to weight the graph by a specified attribute.
Shortest path lengths Shortest path lengths is the minimum number of links between a source node and all other nodes in the network. Shortest path length is a value between 0 and the number of links in the network. The average shortest path length is a system wide metric used to describe the number of links between a node and all other nodes. Shortest path lengths and average shortest path lengths can be computed using the following NetworkX methods shortest_path_length and average_shortest_path_length.
Betweenness centrality Betweenness centrality is the fraction of shortest paths that pass through each node. Betweenness coefficient is a value between 0 and 1. Central point dominance is the average difference in betweenness centrality of the most central point (having the maximum betweenness centrality) and all other nodes. These metrics can be computed using the NetworkX methods betweenness_centrality and the method central_point_dominance
Closeness centrality Closeness centrality is the inverse of the sum of shortest path from one node to all other nodes. Closeness centrality can be computed using the NetworkX method closeness_centrality.
Articulation points A node is considered an articulation point if the removal of that node (along with all its incident edges) increases the number of connected components of a network. Density of articulation points is the ratio of the number of articulation points and the total number of nodes. Density of articulation points is a value between 0 and 1. Articulation points can be computed using the NetworkX method articulation_points.
Bridges A link is considered a bridge if the removal of that link increases the number of connected components in the network. The ratio of the number of bridges and the total number of links in the network is the bridge density. Bridge density is a value between 0 and 1. The method bridges can be used to find bridges in a network.

Hydraulic metrics

Hydraulic metrics are based upon variable flows and/or pressure. The calculation of these metrics requires simulation of network hydraulics that reflect how the system operates under normal or abnormal conditions. Hydraulic metrics included in WNTR are listed in Table 10.

Table 10 Hydraulic Resilience Metrics
Metric Description
Pressure To determine the number of node-time pairs above or below a specified pressure threshold, use the query method on results.node[‘pressure’].
Todini index The Todini index [Todi00] is related to the capability of a system to overcome failures while still meeting demands and pressures at the nodes. The Todini index defines resilience at a specific time as a measure of surplus power at each node and measures relative energy redundancy. The Todini index can be computed using the todini method.
Entropy Entropy [AwGB90] is a measure of uncertainty in a random variable. In a water distribution network model, the random variable is flow in the pipes and entropy can be used to measure alternate flow paths when a network component fails. A network that carries maximum entropy flow is considered reliable with multiple alternate paths. Connectivity will change at each time step, depending on the flow direction. The method weight_graph method can be used to weight the graph by a specified attribute. Entropy can be computed using the entropy method.
Fraction of delivered volume Fraction of delivered volume is the ratio of total volume delivered to the total volume requested [OsKS02]. This metric can be computed as a function of time or space using the fdv method.
Fraction of delivered demand Fraction of delivered demand is the fraction of time periods where demand is met [OsKS02]. This metric can be computed as a function of time or space using the fdd method.
Population impacted Population that is impacted by a specific quantity can be computed using the population_impacted method. For example, this method can be used to compute the population impacted by pressure below a specified threshold.

Water quality metrics

Water quality metrics are based on the concentration or water age. The calculation of these metrics require a water quality simulation. Water quality metrics included in WNTR are listed in Table 11.

Table 11 Water Quality Resilience Metrics
Metric Description
Water age To determine the number of node-time pairs above or below a specified water age threshold, use the query method on results.node[‘quality’] after a simulation using AGE.
Concentration To determine the number of node-time pairs above or below a specified concentration threshold, use the query method on results.node[‘quality’] after a simulation using CHEM or TRACE.
Fraction of delivered quality Fraction of delivered quality is the fraction of time periods where water quality standards are met [OsKS02]. This metric can be computed as a function of time or space using the fdq method
Average water consumed Average water consumed is computed at each node, based on node demand and demand patterns [USEPA15]. The metric can be computed using the average_water_consumed method.
Population impacted As stated above, population that is impacted by a specific quantity can be computed using the population_impacted method. This can be applied to water quality metrics.

Water security metrics

Water security metrics quantify potential consequences of contamination scenarios. These metrics are documented in [USEPA15]. Water security metrics included in WNTR are listed in Table 12.

Table 12 Water Security Resilience Metrics
Metric Description
Mass consumed Mass consumed is the mass of a contaminant that exits the network via node demand at each node-time pair [USEPA15]. The metric can be computed using the mass_contaminant_consumed method.
Volume consumed Volume consumed is the volume of a contaminant that exits the network via node demand at each node-time pair [USEPA15]. A detection limit can be specified. The metric can be computed using the volume_contaminant_consumed method.
Extent of contamination Extent of contamination is the length of contaminated pipe at each node-time pair [USEPA15]. A detection limit can be specified. The metric can be computed using the extent_contaminant method.
Population impacted As stated above, population that is impacted by a specific quantity can be computed using the population_impacted method. This can be applied to water security metrics.

Economic metrics

Economic metrics include network cost and greenhouse gas emissions. Economic metrics included in WNTR are listed in Table 13.

Table 13 Economic Resilience Metrics
Metric Description
Network cost Network cost is the annual maintenance and operations cost of tanks, pipes, vales, and pumps based on the equations from the Battle of Water Networks II [SOKZ12]. Default values can be included in the calculation. Network cost can be computed using the cost method.
Greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions is the annual emissions associated with pipes based on equations from the Battle of Water Networks II [SOKZ12]. Default values can be included in the calculation. Greenhouse gas emissions can be computed using the ghg_emissions method.
Pump operating energy and cost The energy and cost required to operate a pump can be computed using the pump_energy method. This uses the flowrates and pressures from simulation results to compute pump energy and cost.